Climate change has become one of the greatest concerns for many people, cultures and nations around the world. However, has the media influenced and/or shaped our views on climate change? Providing false accusations, loose evidence, strong opinions adopting one side of an argument or adopting both sides of an argument, leaving the audience confused. The predisposed views on climate change as communicated through the media can be strongly misleading.

FOX News, a global icon of world news, also owned by Rupert Murdoch, is just one example of a news oligopoly whose views on climate change deny all scientific facts, without backing up their own evidence on the false accusations of global warming. Below are some FOX news reports, denying any means of global warming:




Gavin, N (2009) elaborates that news media are able to successfully influence individuals based on their  “media influence’, ‘journalistic practice’ and ‘the adequacy of coverage”(p767). Society, in particular America, invests a significant amount of trust in FOX news and the extent to which citizens are dependent on them for information is considerable.

FOX News is also guilty of providing “false balance”.

‘Telling “both” sides of the story – can actually be a form of informational bias’ … ‘he said / she said reporting has allowed a small group of global warming sceptics to have their views greatly amplified’ (Boykoff, J & M, 2004).

Headlines including “Human-caused climate change”, “Temperatures to rise” and “Caribbean Water Supply Threatened by Climate Change” are just a few reports by FOX News providing facts that evidently deny their previous reports on climate change. This causes much confusion for viewers and once again, provides informational bias.

But what about those “who have done least to cause climate change, but who are affected most severely by it”? (Robinson, M 2007). Because of these large oligopoly news reports only being concerned with persuading society’s views and profit, they have forgotten to reveal stories of those being heavily affected by it.

Small island states such as Tuvalu, have been disregarded in terms of climate change in news media. However, they are most affected! Unfortunately these small pacific islands are exposed to impacts of climate change, freshwater contamination by saltwater, coastal erosion, inundation and risks to food security

Large news companies such a FOX news need to get their priorities straight. Is it more important to convince society that climate change is a sham? Or is it more important to inform the rest of the world on those areas evidently being affected by it? In turn making climate change a real-life issue that needs to be addressed!

Reference List:

Boycoff, J & Boycoff, M 2004, ‘Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias’, Fair, accessed 29/09/2013,

Dreher, T 2006, Global Crisis: Global News, lecture, BCM111 International Media and Communication, University of Wollongong, delivered 23 September

Fox News, accessed 29/09/2013,

Gavin, N. 2009, “Addressing climate change: a media perspective”, Environmental Politics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 767

YouTube 2011, A Climate of Deception: How Fox News Distorts the Climate Debate, accessed 29/09/2013,

YouTube 2011, Tuvalu vs. Global Warming, accessed 29/09/2013,



Did you do enough to gain a sufficient public readership? Is your blog as striking as others? Have you learnt a lot throughout the course of engaging in the “blogosphere” and “twitter sphere”?

As I plunder through the vast array of knowledge my brain has absorbed in the past 9 weeks, it is satisfying to say that I have expanded my awareness and ideas about media, audience and place. Looking back through my previous posts I recognize how my views have grown and transitioned from looking at particular content and theories “objectively” to “subjectively”. By not only providing critical analysis on factual information, but also being able to engage an audience by offering my own views, opinions, links, video’s and images on my blog as well.

The ability to engage in public readership had its positives and negatives. One negative in particular was the lack of engagement by other bloggers who proved absence of comments and responses to blogs and twitter posts. Where was the use of two-way communication? In a topic of examining media, audience and place in different contexts, it was interesting to see how audiences reacted to this use of “blogging media”, in which most showed only interest in their personal spaces and not breaching out to discover other places in the blogging media world.

This did raise questions of concern…. Was my blog not interesting? Are people only interested in their own blogs? Why aren’t the rest of the class not tweeting? Could other blogger’s engage a more stimulating readership? If one could not initially engage in conversation and/or response (at the least) than how can one create an ongoing connection and engagement with other fellow bloggers?


It seems my attempts at engaging with other audiences were poor, as little response was received. For example, my use of rhetorical questioning, personal opinions on the topics learnt each week, casual discussion, factual information, and my use of videos and links. What could I have done better to retain public readership? Evidently in my tweets, was the lack of personal attachment. Instead of just tweeting what I found was most interesting about each weeks content, I failed to link information from other BCM240 tweeters, which would have lead to the interaction amongst other classmates.

For example, my tweet:

FANDOM! who is your biggest fan? CHRIS BROWN! See why… …#BCM240#BCM2406#CB#celebrity#performer#obsessed#love

could have included a respective link to an associated  classmate, so I would have followed through and discovered information on who there admirable individual was. The effort shows that you are interested and is more likely to attain a response and public readership, not only on one blog but blog posts followed into the future. Although rhetorical questioning, personal opinions, casual discussion, factual information, videos and links are still engaging components of a blog, it is the way we use these aspects to create personal links and connections to other bloggers to generate a more reliable way of attaining communication. 

Also discovered through the use of blogging, was the portrayal and observation of one’s personal research, stories and examinations. It was a great way to discover studies and explorations by those of your classmates, in their context and settings. Unlike, the boring reading of journal articles; it was a quick and intriguing way to learn. Unfortunately, what I realised were that many people would view my blog “as I would view others”, yet would fail to leave opinions and comments after their observation. This was evident in my statistics; in particular that on September 24th were 18 people looked at my blog. Did I receive any feedback on the 24th September, not one!

WordPress “Statistics” Example


What I have learnt through this is that although blogging and viewing other’s blogs is a relatively simple activity, we often overlook, disregard and forget to follow through with what would inevitably engage public readership. Linking back to my use of rhetorical questioning, personal opinions etc. aren’t completely ineffective, the process of engaging public readership is what is communicated and acted upon after viewing, observing and reading another’s blog.

 Although, there are many negatives to my personal experience of engaging in public readership, there have also been many positives. The broad context provided on media, audience and place and the compulsory homework of “blogging” has enabled me to complete my own research, shape my own opinions and certainly link university work with personal interests. Rather than definite answers, individuals were able to explore and share stories which had the ability to engage public readership, as well as linking to the subject content. Each blog was different, discussed different concepts and offered differentiated information on each topic. For example, the use of video’s, images, links, blog layout, music, text, graphs and titles were all varied.


In conclusion, the use of blogging as a homework tool has enabled me (audience), to use blogging (media) in my own home (place) to explore other’s ideas, thoughts and attitudes (audience), through the same media network (media) in different area’s (places). Inevitably, using media, audience and place to discover more about media, audience and place.

 However, the need for public readership and engagement is also an important tool that still need’s to be acknowledged. Fellow classmates and I initially failed to recognise the importance of connection and feedback, until much later in the course. Also, evident in comparing my earlier blog post “Technology, Temptation and Trickeries”, with my latest blog post “Television is All Around Us”. Other blogger’s opinions were not mentioned in “Technology Temptation and Trickeries”, and were mentioned in “Television is all around”.  Is academic information sufficient for blogging? Is personal opinion adequate enough? Or do we need to combine academic material, personal opinion and the view of FELLOW BLOGGERS as well? The answer is YES! This is what I’ve learnt about creating an advanced public readership, which could help those in the future wanting to engage in a successful blogging readership.

Reference List:

Bruce 2012, 4 WordPress Stats Plugins Compared, JPEG, accessed 26/09/2013,

Khan 2013, The Best Twiiter Plugins for WordPress, JPEG, accessed 26/09/2013,

Saddington 2013, Tag Cloud of WordPress Plugin Names, JPEG, accessed 26/09/2013,

Twitter 2013, Neisha Sinadinovic’s Twiiter Posts, accessed 26/09/2013,

YouTube 2012, It’s Over-Kurupt, accessed 26/09/2013,

BREAKING NEWS: MJ’s Death and Nothing Else!

 On the 25th June 2009, all forms of news media including print, TV, radio and online were bombarded with the death of Michael Jackson at the age of 50. Not only was this shown in America, but it became a global phenomenon and top news story for many countries around the world.


 What was interesting was the vast amount of news coverage the incident received compared to other events that happened on the same day around the world, including:

So why was the death of Michael Jackson given more importance than these other events? One American death compared to that of five deaths in Iraq? Personally, I believe it is because of the huge impact the artist has had on many individuals’ lives around the globe. Many of us have grown up watching, listening, singing and dancing to the songs of “MJ”.  We have cultivated with his positive and negative portrayals in the media for decades. One man celebrated throughout the media multiple times before has influenced us more than five men in other countries, indicating that the media has shaped our society and our identities.

 However, was the death of Michael Jackson a global news media example? The answer is NO! Although American media shows significance influence on the rest of the world, it is largely shaped by those in America. Therefore, the story shown in Australia, Africa, Japan, Russia, and France etc. is heavily based on the perception and facts provided in the host nation of the incident. As described by Reese (2010), “It may be more useful to recognize that globalizing media and journalism simply mean that the creators, objects, and consumers of news are less likely to share the same nation-state frame of reference”.

The Scottish Sun


 “The Korea Herald


For example, the roadside bomb in Fallujah, which may be reported in France. The French news simply will not gather the “full story”, what if they don’t have reporters there at the time of the event? What if they don’t have networks set up within that country? What if there are tax and cultural barriers? It is simply too difficult to label news as ‘global’.

Yes, Michael Jackson was a celebrity! However, could there be other reasons why his death was portrayed globally by news media? This news take over could have been due to reasons such as cultural proximity, relevance, rarity, continuity, elite references, negativity, composition, and personalisation (Dreher, 2013).


Gamson (1989) identifies news framing as an inextricable way to engage readers and/or viewers in which “they take on their meaning by being embedded in a frame or a story line that organizes them and gives them coherence, selecting certain ones to emphasize while ignoring other” (p.157).  What is evidently framed by news media covering the story of Michael Jackson’s death?

  • Death caused by cardiac arrest
  • Michael Jackson is NOT dead
  • Doctor murdered Michael Jackson
  • King of Pop dies at 50
  • Death just before “This Is It” tour
  • Drug-Use Allegations
  • Family and Legal Affairs
  • Effect on the “Jackson” family

Next time your watching the news, question whether the event is being given significant attention, is there other important events going on in the rest of the world? Is this particularly news story being framed because of high status, cultural proximity, rarity, relevance, negativity etc??

Reference List:

Anorak 2009, Michael Jackson Dominates the News, JPEG, accessed 22/09/2013,

Bonnie 2013, Today In Michael Jackson History, JPEG, accessed 22/09/2013,

Dreher, T 2013, What counts in global news media?, lecture, BCM111 International Media and Communication, University of Wollongong, delivered 16 September

Gamson, M 1989, ‘News as Framing’, American Behaviorist Scientist, vol. 33, no.1, p.157, accessed 22/09/2013

The Guardian 2009, Michael Jackson Death, JPEG, accessed 22/09/2013

Wikipedia 2010, Current Events 2009 June 25th, accessed 22/09/2013

YouTube 2009, Breaking News Michael Jackson Has Died, accessed 22/09/2013,

YouTube 2009, Today Show Promos-Michael Jackson’s Death-26/09/2009, accessed 22/09/2013

Television Is All Around Us!

Pubs, airports, fast food restaurants and even laundries, the list of public spaces that contains screens is endless! However, what is interesting is the way we act in these public situations that we wouldn’t usually do at home.   As discussed by Bowles (2013) in the lecture, the 1982 rules of the public screen have shaped the way we receive and translate information. For example:

  • Adjust to the social rules of the settings
  • Adjust yourselves to other people in the space
  • Viewers orient to the screen even when not watching
  • Open to talking about what’s on the screen

 Although these television messages create different emotions in each individual, yet conform us to act in a certain manner, what is the purpose of showing such things publicly?  Will (2005) elaborates “500 channels mock public television as crucial to diversity”. As a global society, public networks and public viewing allow for the shared knowledge of cultures, information, news, events, and products from around the world. We no longer have to search for this data; it is forced upon us through public TV’s.

Where have you seen a TV in a public space? How does it make you feel? Personally, working in a women’s retail store, the use of televisions in this public space is vital, particularly in the waiting area near the change rooms. I am aware that the sole purpose of these screens is to promote the store’s clothing.  This is a very smart idea, as people are waiting to use the change room, or whilst are waiting for a friend, they can observe a dress, a pair of shorts or a top on a real person rather than a mannequin. This makes them attracted to the product and they are able to see what’s in the store while they are seated.

This Week’s Styles “Lily and Minx” (2013)

In contrast to that of Sarah Abreau’s blog “Media Screens”, which elaborates that “public media screens enables people to interact with companies on another level. It creates engagement and a connection between the customer and company (Shinohara, A et al, 2007)”. This shows a strong and evident link between the level of sales at Lily and Minx, and the public screen advertising the products.


Do you think the University of Wollongong’s television advertisements are gaining all the recognition and applicants it should be?? I don’t think they are! There needs to be more creativity and more coverage on the campus lifestyle. Personally I think the TV advertisements should include all of the campus parties (e.g. toga party), harbour cruises, markets, uni bar events and the URAC gym. These are the characteristics of university that make a “uni life” so enjoyable for its students, it is not all about being culturally diverse and studying, it’s what we are able to do with these national identities and knowledge which is the greatest asset to UOW!

Uni Bar “Garden Party” ft. “Owl Eyes”

Has the use of public television’s been used fully to meet their intended purposes, or is there much more that could be done to bring in the revenue, sales and applicants?? Either way, we are still going to act different in public when viewing the screen, than when we do in the privacy of our own homes.

Reference List:

Abreau, S 2013, ‘Media Screens’, University of Wollongong, weblog post, WordPress, 20 September, accessed 21/09/2013,

Bowles, K 2013, New Public Media Space, lecture, BCM240 Media, Audience and Place, University of Wollongong, delivered 16/09/2013

University of Wollongong 2013, Bright Futures Start Here, JPEG, accessed 21/09/2013,

Will, G 2005, ‘Public TV for what purpose?’ The Grand Rapid’s Press, 5 March, p.1, accessed 21/09/2-13,

YouTube 2011, TV all around you, accessed 21/09/2013,

YouTube 2012, Garden Party-Sneaky Sound System & Owl Eyes, accessed 21/09/2013,

YouTube 2013, This Week in Fashion-Lily + Minx, accessed 21/09/2013

Piracy is Wrong, but it Feels so Right!

Singing “Happy Birthday” in public, jaywalking, forgoing a bike helmet and PIRACY are just a few of the illegal acts in society that could have you fined and/or jailed, yet we are either unaware of these laws, forget about them or simply choose not to abide by them.

 Internet piracy is the unlawful reproduction and/or distribution of any copyrighted digital file that can change hands over the Internet. This can be done with music files, videos and movies, e-books, software, and other materials.”  (Wise Geek, 2013)

Can piracy lead to greater business success? YES! Although it may not bring in revenue for the industry, it can definitely allow for an unimaginable increase in viewers and/or listeners. Evident in Game of Thrones, as the most pirated TV show on the internet with “over one million people illegally downloading the season finale in under a day” (Rowles, 2013).

The Official Game of Thrones Page:


What makes Game of Thrones so popular? And why do we engage in the illegal downloading of the series? Bowles (2013) elaborated that Australia receives most of our information and sources last; we are behind the rest of the world! We want to see the latest episode at the same time, if not before the other die-hard fans in the northern hemisphere. Which raises another issue, why would we pay to see it? If all of our income is being given to the Northern Hemisphere (America)? They are only getting stronger and we are helping them!

Global Pay TV Revenue (2012)


Weiss ‘the executive’ of the series, reported that “piracy is better than an emmy” due to the ‘buzz’ it’s created, however, the US ambassador to Australia has begged that “fans to stop “stealing” the show” (The Washington Post, 2013). What action’s can be put in place to solve this issue?

I agree with the blog post “My Simple Solution to the Piracy Problem” by Emma Paloma (2013) who elaborates that her solution isn’t that difficult and involves production companies such as Warner Brothers, making movies available online for a cheaper price. This is great example of a simple solution to the problem. However, I would take a different approach.

Why didn’t we vote for “The Pirate Party Australia” in the latest election? “Nearly everything around you is covered by copyright and patent law and these laws create a massive tax our society has to pay. At some point we need to ask the question, are these laws really accomplishing the purpose they were created for? We’re here to warn you, they’re not” (Pirate Party Australia, 2013).

We are being denied the creative works of this era! Vote for the pirate party next time to strive towards an end to censorship and move towards internet freedom!! What will your actions towards piracy be?

Reference List:

Barthold, J 2012, Global IPTV revenues forecast, JPEG, accessed 15/09/2013,

Dewey, C 2013, ‘Game of Thrones exec says piracy is better than an Emmy’ Washington Post, 9 August, p.17, accessed 15/09/2013

Kalimer 2013, HQ Humor, JPEG, accessed 15/09/2013,

Paloma, E 2013, My Simple Solution to the Piracy Problem, weblog, accessed 15/09/2013,

Pirate Party Australia, accessed 15/09/2013

The Official Website for Game of Thrones 2013, accessed 15/09/2013

Wise Geek 2013, What is internet piracy, accessed 15/09/2013

Youtube 2013, Is Piracy Helping Game of Thrones?, accessed 15/09/2013

Jersey Shore, Geordie Shore and The Shire!!??

When talking about local TV in global contexts the first thing that comes to my mind “a fanatic for reality TV” is Jersey Shore. IMDb (2009) identifies Jersey Shore as “a reality-based look at the vapid lives of several New Jersey 20-somethings and their respective friends and/or hook-ups” which was released in USA in December 2009. This television series is categorized into comedy, drama, reality-TV and romance. It’s array of genre’s, the characters involved and the settings have allowed for a diverse range of audiences, ranging from 1.4million viewers during the Season 1 Premiere to a huge 8.8million viewers during the Season 4 Premiere.

Due to it’s great success, was the birth of Geordie Shore in Britain (2011). Broadcast also on MTV, Geordie Shore is a British-version of the American Jersey Shore (IMDb, 2011).




Why would other countries want to translate a reality-TV comedy into their local genre? Turnball (2011) identifies four reasons including cultural references, culturally specific character types, ‘recognizable’ actors and audience tastes. With relatable characters, humor and real-life situations, Geordie Shore has become immensely popular in Australia, But Why???

The strong cultural link between the UK and Australia is evident between our shared cultural DNA, cultural traffic and the familiarity with surroundings (Turnball, 2011). This cultural link became even stronger and gave Geordie Shore Season 6 an even greater reputation in Oz, as the series was filmed ‘Down Under’. It gave Australian individuals the chance to observe these know well-known celebrities in our country and enabled us to relate to them on a personal level. They were on our territory…

MTV London (2013) announced that it would be their highest rating television series ever as the beloved cast “head off to the other side of the world to ‘tash on’, ‘get mortal’, ‘bosh’ and ‘get on it till we vomit’ like only the Geordie’s can. Will the Aussies embrace their mortal ways and languid lingo? Will the red hot sun finally ignite passions between Charlotte and Gaz? Or will he be dizzied by the endless sea of surfing Sheilas? And will James be bambozzled by worldies on the other side of the globe?” Even before the release of the series, Australian individuals were heavily influenced through the promotions and advertisements. It was relatable to our culture, and it was humorous to watch cast members from the show immersed in our traditions and customs!

What happens when Australia tries to make a spin-off of Jersey Shore and Geordie Shore to release into the Australian market?? Here come’s The Shire……

Expecting the television series to be a big hit, like it’s neighbouring shows, it was reluctantly a huge failure! Given 3 out of 10 stars from reviewer Andrew Tajis, and facebook pages created including “Boycott Channel Ten until ‘The Shire’ is Axed”, hatred was circling the ten television network. After only one season and a total of nine episodes The Shire was removed from the network. But why was it so disliked by the Australian public?

Personally I believe it was making a mockery of Australian society, and particularly for those living in Sutherland Shire. The people were fake, the conversations were phony and it is in no way an Australian form of humour! The Australian (2012) shared comments from well-known Australian stars and their disgust towards the show as Ruby Rose tweeted “I’ll never Watch that again. Or tweet about it. Or think about it.”

Cunningham and Jacka (1996) elaborate that “humour, and thus comedy formats, most drama, relying as it does on some unavoidable specificities of character and place, and of course the vast bulk of news and current affairs, remain stubbornly resistant to exploitation in a multiplicity of markets” p249. Funnily enough The Shire, allowed Australian society to stubbornly resist the exploitation of the Australian culture, its character, place, humour and current affairs…


 Can we only relate to humour and irony when it is not negatively portraying our Australian culture?? We love Jersey Shore and Geordie Shore, even when they are immersed in our society, but why can we not accept the jokes, persona’s and comments made about people in our local culture? Individually, I believe it is because we don’t like fake and negative perceptions of our Australian individuality being used to make profit, what do you think??!

Reference List:

 Aqauariousbb17 2011, Best Jersey Shore Moments, accessed 15/09/2013

Bodey, M 2012, The Shire Provokes a Reaction, The Australian, 18 July, p.10

Drawn by Fyfe, The Shire, JPEG, accessed 15/09/2013,

Entire Gospel, A Christian’s response to Jersey Shore, JPEG, accessed 15/09/2013,

Facebook 2012, Boycott Channel Ten until “The Shire” is axed, accessed 15/09/2013,

IMDb 2009, Jersey Shore TV Series, accessed 15/09/2013,

IMDb 2011, Geordie Shore TV Series, accessed 15/09/2013,

Mirror, Geordie Shore in Sydney, JPEG, accessed 15/09/2013,

MTV London 2013, Geordie Shore-Season 6, accessed 15/09/2013,

MTVUKofficial 2013, GeordieShore-Exclusive Series 6 Trailer, accessed 15/09/2013,

TheShireAustralia 2012, The Shire-Sneak Peak, accessed 15/09/2013,

Turnball, S 2013, Local Television in Global Context, lecture, BCM111 International Media and Communication, University of Wollongong, delivered 09/09/2013


Christopher Maurice Brown, also known as CB, has been my longest obsession. This is where my fandom starts…

A framed poster, concert ticket’s, tours, albums, t-shirts and one of his dancer’s sunglasses are just a few of the materialistic possessions that link me to my biggest idol. Wikipedia (2013) identifies Christopher Maurice “Chris” Brown (born May 5, 1989) as an American recording artistdancer, and actor.

These materialistic items are cross-promotional materials for global circulation mainly to increase profits. However, it is one of the only ways we can physically show devotion and support for a role model. My heart melts to his music and I get so excited when a new song is released, however this cannot be measured by Chris Brown himself, instead we show our appreciation and fondness through purchases or YouTube “watches”.

Chris Brown “F.A.M.E Tour” 26th April 2011


Pearson, R (2010) states that “the digital revolution has had a profound impact upon fandom, empowering and disempowering, blurring the lines between producers and consumers and creating symbiotic relationship” p84. Where do we draw the line between a fan and becoming obsessive? Fandom is a hard thing to measure and a devotion to something that is incredibly “well liked” by an individual is increasingly hard to calculate, especially with new forms of digital technology that gives us access and connects us globally in different ways.

Personally, I believe the only difference between fandom in our generation and fandom in the past is our technological advancements. We have greater access, more connections and are more educated in media areas. For example, Chris Brown has the following media sources which would not have been available and accessible in precedential times.





Michala Johnston’s blog post “Friends Forever” offers a broader perception of this change on the difference between fandom in the past and fandom in the present. She elaborates that “although the last episode well over 9 years ago, my connection to ‘Friends’ has grown stronger rather than weaker over time. This could be now that I am older I feel a stronger sense of connection to the characters as I am able to relate to them more”. Evidently, proving that the difference is not only due to technological advancements, but also our own emotional and physical developments.

In the early eras of fandom, fans were able to access information about their role models through forms of mass media, including magazines. It has been difficult for these traditional forms of media to align business interests with fan activity. Although many fan magazines in 1911 were closely associated with the movie industry and saw the exploitation of Hollywood.

 Cosmopolitan Magazine July 2011 “


Cosmopolitan Magazine is one of Australia’s most popular forms of traditional media amongst youth. Through the use of articles, fan mail, celebrity links and sexual facts, the magazine is able to encouraging fans using real life celebrities and scenarios. Much like Jenkins (2006) the pop-cosmopolitan magazine is able to generate:

  • Relationship to types of reception
  • Role in encouraging activism
  • Function as an interpretive community
  • Status as an alternative social community
  • Traditions of cultural production

What kind of fan are you? Have you helped the fandom industry financially in terms of purchasing material possessions? How do you think fandom has changed over the years? Do you use traditional forms of media to access information or do you use new technological advancements? Does it really matter how we show support for our idols?? NO! As long as we are showing some form of appreciation!

Reference List:

Art8amby, Word press, Rihanna for Cosmopolitan US July 2011, JPEG, accessed 08/09/2013,

Bowles, K 2013, Fandom, lecture, BCM240, University of Wollongong, delivered 02/09/2013

Chris Brown World 2013, News, Music, Media, Tour, Community, Shop, accessed 08/09/2013,

Cosmopolitan 2013, Online Cosmopolitan Magazine, accessed 08/09/2013,

Facebook 2013, Chris Brown Facebook Page, accessed 08/09/2013,

Johnston, M 2013, ‘Friends Forever’, University of Wollongong, weblog post, WordPress, 8 September, accessed 26/09/2013,

Pearson, R 2010, ‘Fandom in the Digital Era’, Popular Communication: The Journal of Media and Culture, vol. 8, no.1, pp84-95

Twitter 2013, Chris Brown Tweets, accessed 08/09/2013,

Wikipedia 2013, Chris Brown, accessed 08/09/2013,

Youtube 2013, ChrisBrownVEVO, accessed 08/09/2013,