“Craving for Change”

Why are India and China taking over TV? Michael Curtin (2010) elaborates that both are considerably different! However, “they will indeed be major economic, social, and cultural forces in the 21st century, and their impact on global media is likely to be profound”p263. But which of these forces is the strongest? Why are these countries becoming the largest media capitalists in the world? Is it economic? Or is it a shift in our generation’s social and cultural characteristics that bring the need for expanding economic development and crave our need for change? Could it in fact be the opposite way around! That economic development causes change both socially and culturally?

“Media capitals are sites of mediation, locations where complex forces and flows interact……….they are places where things come together and, consequently, where the generation and circulation of new mass culture forms become possible” (Curtin, 2003). What makes India (Mumbai) and China (Hong Kong) such strong and powerful media capitals in today’s society?


As well as their advanced technology and economic set-up, both capitals depend on a vast array of culturally diverse influences that attract a wide range of audiences. “The city’s fortune as a media capital rests not only on its centrality, but also on its marginality. Hong Kong is very Chinese and remarkably Western, and yet it’s not really either” (Curtin, 2003) p267.

American ‘Human Tetris’ Game Show


Asian ‘Human Tetris’ Game Show

Should America be concerned? Although located in America, Hollywood is considerably APPREHENSIVE! Which was evident in 1993, after the release of ‘The X-Files’. TV.com (2002) identitifies “The X-Files as a Peabody, Golden Globe and Emmy Award-winning American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter”. For more information on ‘The X-Files’ visit http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0106179/

The X-Files (1993-2002)’


This form of ‘neo-orientalism’ allowed for the realization that media capitalists are emerging not only nationally but transnationally and that television series and films could be produced cheaper and encounter much less restrictions on laws and taxes etc.

As Curtin (2009) expresses “The American television industry has for decades been a trendsetter in the development of the medium world-wide” p9, it won’t and isn’t going to be forever. We are evolving, things are changing every day, it’s our desire and our craving’s to want and explore those changes! Hong Kong and Mumbai are feeding those cravings, yet our cravings will once again change. Economic, social and cultural forces will change! Where are we going next?



Australiannetworknews 2011, Indian film-makers show their diversity, accessed 29/08/2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=hVtT46YQiME

BolumRehBeri, The X-Files, JPEG, accessed 29/08/2013 http://www.bolumrehberi.com/The-X-Files.asp

Curtin, Michael, “Comparing Media Capitals: Hong Kong and Mumai”, Global Media and Communication, Sage Publications, 2010. 262-270

Curtin, Michael. “Matrix Media.” Television Studies After TV: Understanding Television in the Post-Broadcast Era. Eds Graeme Turner and Jinna Tay. London: Routledge, 2009. 9–19.

GreatestTVshows 2009, Hole In The Wall US Season 1Episode 1 Part 1, accessed 29/08/2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnFBM58UOYM

IMDb 2013, The X-Files (1993-2002), accessed 29/08/2013, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0106179/

Khorana, S 2013, BCM111, ‘Television and the Emergence of New Media Capitals’, lecure notes, accessed 29/08/2013, elearning@UOW

Neon Flights, Cathaway Pacific Airway Flight, JPEG, accessed 29/08/2013, http://www.neonflights.com/flight-of-20:05-with-cathay_pacific_airways-from-hong_kong-to-mumbai/cx685.htm

TV 2002, The X-Files, accessed 29/08/2013, http://www.tv.com/shows/the-xfiles/


Are You a 90’s Kid?

What about me? What about the current generation? We watch more television than any other age group! Rather than interviewing an older individual, I can delve deeps into my thoughts about privacy and television viewing, as something that occurs now as a habit that hasn’t yet been put too much thought. Lets’ Explore!

With the emergence of new technologies and the decreasing age of those that have access to such material, television viewing has increased dramatically over the last few centuries.


 With these new technologies, also emerge different viewing opportunities. The list is endless! We are lucky enough to have the choice to watch television at home, in the car, on our mobile phones, and even in public places! This is what distinguishes our screening privacy. It is evident that a lot has changed over past years, from large families huddling around the one television to loading television series on our laptop in our bedrooms. The emergence of these new technologies including mobile phones, 3D televisions, laptops, internet and downloading are just a few of these ever advancing gadgets.

But what about my experience as a 20year old woman living in this era? What do I like to watch? How do I like to watch it? Where do I watch it? Like many other young adult women, reality TV quenches my viewing thirst! Oh the drama is magnificent! As well as living in the shoes of celebrity’s and experiencing there life problems. Dubrofsky (2009) explores the need for emotional women to access the “real” as they cannot contain their intense bodily responses. This study shows evident signs of framed ideologies of women and their reason’s for watching TV. However, I disagree, because I don’t need to watch reality TV to allow myself to cry, to laugh or to feel sexually pleased. Yet, this is just me, and it would be incorrect for me to base a population on my opinions.

Watching reality TV in the comfort and privacy of my room, makes me feel relaxed and undisturbed. Like many other people, I am lucky enough to have access to specific forms of technology that allow me to download television series on my computer and watch them when, where and how I like them. Rather than watching them on the television in the lounge room, I can pause, rewind or reload if I’m feeling hungry, need to go to the toilet or even just decide to lie in my bed before dozing off to sleep.

One of my favourites, “Keeping Up With The Kardashians” http://au.eonline.com/shows/kardashians

In the week 4 tutorial, an interesting class activity was examined. Students were asked to draw their household floor plan, and label each room with a level of privacy from 1-5 (with 1 being the most private). Funnily enough, the least private rooms included the lounge room/dining where a television was located. What was even more evident were that the most private rooms, in particular the bedroom, contained a laptop or a computer.


 What is so culturally distinct about our generation? Is it our cravings to know about celebrity life? Our obsessive nature of upper class society? The technologies? The opportunities and the choices? With all these advancing changes and social acceptances, it’s hard to know…

Think about what you watch, where you watch it and when you watch it? WHY!?

Reference List:

Alltime’s10 (2012), 10 Things That Make You A 90’s Kid, accessed 25/08/2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=finPQLzOLUU

Dubrofsky E. R 2009, ‘Fallen Women in Reality TV’, vol. 9, no.3, pg353-368, accessed 25/08/2013, University of Wollongong Library Summon, http://ey9ff7jb6l.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF

EonlineCanada (2013), E! Keeping Up With The Kardashians Season 8 Teaser, accessed 25/08/2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6r5Hc5zTWNc

E!online n.d, Keeping Up With The Kardashians, accessed 25/08/2013, http://au.eonline.com/shows/kardashians/photos

House 4 Rent Florida (2009), Floor Plan, accessed 25/08/2013, JPEG http://www.house4rentflorida.com/about_house.php

Neilson (2013), Average TV Viewing For 2008-09TV Season At All-Time High, accessed 25/08/2013, JPEG, http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/newswire/2009/average-tv-viewing-for-2008-09-tv-season-at-all-time-high.html

Developed vs. Developing Hip Hop

Above Ground Magazine (2010) defines hip hop as the four elements of “Em-ceeing, DJ-ing, B-boying and graffiti art”

As a group presenter for this weeks topic “Global and Local Selves in Hip Hop” I was privileged enough to complete extra research and readings that expanded my knowledge on the branching of hip hop and the effects of different nations characteristics on the spread of this global culture.

What would happen if particular countries had more influence on the effects of globalization?  Would it give them greater power over these hip hop elements? The answer is YES! This notion of power will identify how local selves in hip hop are heavily affected by controlling host nations, which in turn made hip hop such a global identity.


Throughout the 1980’s, hip hop in the USA was simply a movement in popular culture that spread indefinitely throughout the rest of the world. However, for many small developing nations it affected the local culture in a much more personal way.

This is the infamous Suga Pop, who is identified by Henderson as ‘a proginetor, an islander, a dance legend, and Maori’ p194. Many islanders look up to him as a role model who has enabled the movement of particular styles such as ‘popping and locking’ and who’s traveling body connects ‘Samoa, Aoteroa, Hawaii, LA and NYC’ (Henderson, 2012, p195). But why was it so important for developing nations, in particular the islanders, to have such multicultural hip hop role models?

  • Indigenous Footsouljah’s (Samoan)
  • K.O.S-163 (New Zealand)
  • Suga Pop (New Zealand)
  • Electric Boogaloo’s (African-American)
  • Boo-Yaa Tribe (American)
  • Snoop Dogg (African-American)
  • MC Khas (Samoan)

Henderson (2012) elaborates that the hip hop role models encouraged pacific islanders to ‘break their confidence barrier’ by experimenting with imported dance forms such as “bop” p190. This exerted confidence in the local culture and therefore groups and individuals started mixing island culture in their dance formations.

A Samoan Hip Hop dancer, Petelo Petelo stated that rather than contradicting or opposing traditional forms, street dance enabled the children of migrants to have the confidence to learn and perform traditional dance at Samoan gatherings’ (Henderson, 2012, p190).

The mixture of different cultures through hip hop, in particular the influence of USA on Pacific Islands has allowed for the diversity of people, lyrics and languages, recognition of coloured people, learning, experimenting, spreading of knowledge, acceptance, integration and allows one to re-visit connections in history.

How does hip hop spread around the world? Transnational transfers of popular dance and music filter down in order from “USA, Hawaii, US Samoa, Samoa, New Zealand and Australia” (Henderson, 2012, p188). Why does USA sit at the top of the hip hop food chain?


A recent study “The structure of international music flows using network analysis” by Yon Soo Lim, Moon, S. & Barnett, G.A. (2010) has revealed that “developed countries hold a leading position as both the dominant exporters and importers in the music trade network, whereas the developing countries are net importers of music goods” p394. This is very important in recognising the spread of hip hop globally, as rap music and beat boxing comprise a large division of the music industry.

Also revealed in the study were that Germany, USA, Netherlands and the UK hold the top four positions in the degree centrality of the international music trade flow network, whereas Samoa is placed down the bottom of the list. (Lim, Y. Moon, S. & Barnett, G.A, 2010, pg387-389)

Funnily enough these central countries correspond with the top four music companies in the world.

  1. Germany = Sony
  2. USA = Warner
  3. Netherlands = EMI
  4. UK = Universal

This result implies that the core nations have expanded and controlled the international music and hip hop market as a consequence of media globalization. “Technologies have not enriched all nations equally, large media companies are enhancing their economic positions” p394, whereas the developing nations, such as the Pacific Islands are depending on these countries for global imports. As mentioned earlier and identified by a smart member of my BCM111 tutorial group, you could say that America is an exporter of “CONFIDENCE”.

The cultural integration of hip hop has proved beneficial for many countries, specifically those of Pacific Island heritage; however the unequal integration of these nations has also identified some issues in the spread of the hip hop culture.

 Following these findings, my group’s collaborative idea was a rap battle activity in which the class would be divided into two groups, one side with a list of Islander rap words, and the other with a list of American rap words. The activity involved both groups to create a small verse of their own rap song using the given words, they then had to rap against each other. Surprisingly this worked quite well, however, it was visible that many of the English and American words were still used throughout the Islander rap. Has the effect of these developed nations on developing nations caused too much loss of cultural identity? It’s your choice!

Reference List:

Brydon, G. 2010, “Hip-Hop: A Culture of Four Elements?” Above Ground Music Fashion Culture, 30 September, p1

Henderson, A. 2012, “Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora” vol. 12, pp180-199

Russel, H (2013), “The Rap Battle (Parody)” accessed 18/08/2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iu90z9Akxgk

The Ellen Show (2010), “Check Out These Amazing Kid Hip-Hop Dancers” accessed 18/08/2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTsQ_ccaHmk

Top Nation Japan (2012), “Freestyle Session Japan 2012 10th Anniversary” accessed 18/08/2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wk4Nag_t1oc

Yon Soo Lim, Moon, S. & Barnett, G.A. 2010, “The structure of international music flows using network analysis”, New Media & Society, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 379-399.

“First Cinema Experience” Belgrade 1934


Alexander Sinadinovic, a man with so much character embedded into his face, so willing to tell of even the slightest memory that comes to mind, and of course my happy Serbian grandfather. Much enthusiasm was exuberated when asking my ‘grandpa’ of his earliest cinema experience. Face glowing and smile almost touching both ears, his words went on for a while, with so much of his history to be past down to his grandchildren. Runow and Clarke (2003) identify “The Five Keys to Success” for interviewing techniques which enabled the family bonded discussion to run smoothly and stay on track. http://www.uman.com.au/Articles/interviewing.html

Born in Belgrade, Alexander remembers his first cinema experience on the 18th August 2013 in a face to face conversation. In 1934 as a ten-year old, hopping into his father’s car to head down to the local cinema, 200-300 meters from where his brother was born. As a young Serbian boy, Alexander was very lucky to be born into a wealthier family as much of the local people were poor and couldn’t afford cars, or to attend to the cinema “there wasn’t many cars on the road”. It was a winter’s afternoon, and the air was cold. His father was off work and could therefore spend his time with his son, as well as deciding on what movie to watch and paying for the ticket “I didn’t know much about the cost of money”.

Alexander recalls that there were different costs depending on where you sat in the cinema, who was lucky enough to sit in the middle back row “the best seats”. The cinema was an inside cinema with a small screen, yet the seats at the front “lowest cost” were too close (re-enacting looking up with a very strained neck). The cinema was full, the seat on your ticket was the seat you had to sit in and there was a man who would show you to your assigned seat.

The first movie he ever saw was “Charlie Chaplin”. IMDb (2013) identifies Charlie Chaplin to be “one of the most pivotal stars of the early days of Hollywood, who lived an interesting life both in his films and behind the camera. He is most recognized as an icon of the silent film era.” For a full list of Charlie Chaplin Movies visit http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000122/. As an English comic actor, this recognizes that a lot of movies shown in Serbia at this time weren’t of Serbian heritage. Alexander elaborates that most films he saw were either European or American that had Serbian subtitles. However, Kronja (2008) elaborates that “Serbian films after 2000 show a tendency towards re‐traditionalization and the re‐establishment of patriarchal values in terms of male–female gender roles and women’s rights, which can be traced back to urban cinema” p73.

He remembers feeling incredibly comfortable; the cinema was full of Serbian people that could afford to attend. When asked if there were any coloured people in attendance, he doesn’t recall any coloured people within the cinema. “There were many poor people, a lot of gypsies” however, they weren’t in the cinema because they couldn’t afford it.

The cinema didn’t sell food or drink, but that didn’t dampen his experience “I liked everything”. Alexander remembers laughing throughout the whole movie (45min-1hour long) because he had “never seen anything like that” and had “never seen such long shoes”. Charlie Chaplin was screened in black and white, with no music, little talking and Serbian subtitles. A small ray of light streamed down from a small window in the back of the cinema, were a man was turning the camera reel “by hand”.

“The Hunchback of Notre Dame” (1939)



Alexander remembers a few movies he sighted after “Charlie Chaplin” including “Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy” where “one was fat and was skinny”, “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” and also reminisces on “observing a plane flying and a man grabbing on with his feet off the ground”. His view on cinema today is that we can get the camera “to do everything we want, there is jumping and flying (Flash Gordon), it is very unreal”.

“Oliver Hardy and Stan Laurel”

 My grandfather has so many more interesting and insightful stories to tell of his past; however this blog would go on forever. The experience of interviewing my grandfather was absolutley wonderful! Because of the joyous and overflowing memories he had, I found out a lot more than I would have initially asked. Also, I was fortunate that the interview ran on track, thanks to following the “The Five Keys to Success” by Runow and Clark (2003). I hope you enjoyed a brief moment in my grandfather’s history; I can’t wait to read your stories!

Reference List:

Clark, N & Runow, M 2003, ‘The Five Keys to Success’, Interviewing Techniques, accessed 17/08/2013, http://www.uman.com.au/Articles/interviewing.html

GunofNeverone 2011, Oliver Hardy and Stan Laurel working on the street, accessed 18/08/2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=HvqaWKVhqqA

IMBd 2013, Charles Chaplin (1889-1977), accessed 18/08/2013, http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000122/

Kronja, I 2008, ‘Women’s Right in Serbian Cinema After 2000’, Film and Television Studies, vol. 6, no.1, pp67-82, accessed 18/08/2013, http://ey9ff7jb6l.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF

OjajeBiekUrwa 2008, Charlie Chaplin- Modern Times (lyrics), accessed 18/08/2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=_UopgPw_BPU

Sinadinovic, A 2013, personal conversation, 18 August 2013

Tooze, G. The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939), JPEG, accessed 18/08/2013, http://www.dvdbeaver.com/film/reviews/hunchback_of_notre_dame.htm

Surviving International Exchange

Studying abroad is identified by many people as immersing yourself and learning within another country. This enables you to experience a different culture, although it might not be as drastic as an American individual competing in an iconic Japanese Game Show “I Survived a Japanese Game Show”, it broadly identifies struggles and cultural differences associated with international exchange.

Those individuals that are blessed with the opportunity of studying abroad, hold many attributes that enable their competence in managing a cultural change. These include flexibility, critical thinking, reflexivity, empathy, understanding divergent points of view, coping with uncertainty and cultural negotiation (Marginson, 2012). Although these characteristics may aid an international student it doesn’t ensure that “international education is the rich intercultural experience it could be” (Marginson, 2012). Many people agree and disagree with this comment based upon their personal experiences and beliefs.

For those that agree, why would it not be the rich intercultural experience it could be? Language barriers? Financial problems? Customs/Traditional differences? Or it could be that a local student doesn’t see the benefits in making a relationship with an international student based upon the short period of time the student is here for, what are the reimbursements we ask? what do local students gain from this communication? FRIENDSHIP is one of the greatest accomplishments and rewarding experiences a local student or any individual can have with an international human being. Kazuhiro and Keith (2010) highlight that for intercultural friendship to form between Australian and Japanese students four factors are of most importance. These include “frequent contact, similarity of personal characteristics and age, self-disclosure and receptivity of other nationals” p67.


However, the fact that international education may not be the rich intercultural experience it could be is not solely based on the response from the local students, there should be two-way communication amongst the local and international students. Ethnocentrism and Parochialism are two of the reason that international students may exclude themselves from mixing within another culture. Ethnocentrism is the “belief of superiority in one’s personal ethnic group, but it can also develop from racial or religious differences” (Your Dictionary, 2013). Parochial is “confined or restricted as if within the borders of a parish : limited in range or scope” (Merriam-Webster Online). Not only can these issues effect intercultural relationships but “Can Be The Greatest Threat to World” (UK Telegraph, 2012). http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/danielknowles/100126755/parochialism-is-the-greatest-threat-to-the-world-in-2012-but-if-we-cheer-up-we-might-avoid-it/Can you survive international exchange?

CAN YOU SURVIVE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE? Do the positives outweigh the negatives!? Personally, I believe two-way communication is the key to ensuring that international education is the rich intercultural experience it could be!

See all that UOW has to offer on exchange http://www.uow.edu.au/student/exchange/index.html


Globalisation or Americanisation?

Globalization is one of the most, if not utmost topics discussed and debated across all nations and across all generations.  Perhaps, one of the most insightful processes as how society and culture has generated over time.  Wikipedia 2013 defines globalization as “the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.Which in term increases world-wide exchanges of national and cultural resources.


However, what would you do if one nation was taking over? Not just consuming your country and culture? But had ownership and control over the process of international integration? A parent nation, who could and may very well take over the world? Although there are many positives to globalization, it is hard to dismay the negatives, especially the accountable cultural homogenization.

Cultural homogenization has caused much tension in terms of global interactions. This theory is known as a reduction in cultural diversity due to the popularization and diffusion of a wide range of cultural symbols. There is one phenomenon that is challenging the term cultural interaction-ism and is the arguably the most popular example of cultural homogenization, Americanization.


What do you think about when you hear the word America? American flags, apple pie, baseballs, hot dogs, the statue of liberty or Justin Beiber. WRONG! Although you might think these people, products and traditions are American, they have in fact originated from other cultures. This raises the question on whether the huge amount of money and popularity that America holds, may be the reason that these people, products and traditions become household names in this increasingly recognizable nation. http://www.buzzfeed.com/whoiswillo/ten-american-things-that-are-not-from-america-6o16

A Ugandan writer “explores the meaning of globalization and the growing influence of American culture around the world” Global Vision, 2006. His belief is that other cultures succumb to USA as they have one of the strongest economy’s and army’s, which in turn  persuade the rest of the world to “think and act like them”.

After comparing globalization and Americanization, I struggle to come to terms with the definition of globalization. It is almost impossible to believe that each country is exchanging and absorbing other cultures from roughly the same percentage. Rather it seems, that America takes world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture, turns them into their own and spreads them across the globe as “American”. Therefore, the world being more Americanised than Globalized.

Do you think our society is more influenced by globalization or americanisation?

Spacing Yourself Out From Media Usage

Private or Public Space?


One may argue that both are inescapable from the wide world and growing epidemic of media usage. Rather, it is more relevant to examine how much media is exposed to us or is accessed by individuals in these specific spaces. A recent 2012 study “Restricted Mobilities: Access to, and activities in, Private and Public Spaces” examines that a dominating trend in the contemporary city has been an increasing privatization of public spaces”. This finding questions whether our exposure to media usage in the public arena can in fact be managed and filtered to our personal desires, much like those that are privatizing public spaces.

 However, do we have to create a private space so excluded from the rest of world to completely rid ourselves from media usage? Whilst listening to Triple J on this morning’s radio, a shocking story was brought to my attention. “Missing Father and Son Found in Vietnam Forest after 40 years”.  SO CRAZY!! Can you imagine being alienated from civilization for such a long period of time? http://www.ibtimes.com/missing-father-son-found-after-40-years-vietnam-forest-ho-van-thanh-wants-go-back-photos-1378107

 What would they have missed out on?!!! Globalisation? Elections? Natural disasters? Terrorist attacks? The list is endless!! http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/default.htm

The comical Triple J talk show hosts continued to ask listeners to “have their say” on what the two Vietnamese men would have missed out on over the last 40years. With many listeners calling the station to make humorous remarks, much of the responses were in relation to the use of media and technology. In particular, the crazy frog which most of our generation remember!

Such an isolated space has created such a unknowingly and unexpected life for those who have hidden from the public arena. For those who have been isolated, I feel are now behind in the social and technological aspects of the world today. The world is only growing in capacity of media technologies and therefore excluding ourselves completely from any form or aspect of these technologies is hindering our understanding and communication with other people, other places and other spaces of the universe.


Although we can create a private space and control our media exposure to some degree, we will never be completely out of touch with these technologies. Unless, we completely hide ourselves from the rest of the world and therefore take no part in the spaces around us…

Living in a private or public space? You Choose!